OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Mexico 2009 (ECONOMIE)
An earlier version was published in Jaffe, A. Trajtenberg eds. Annales de l'Economie et de Statistique January Zipped PDF.
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Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Industrial Economics Unpublished appendices to this paper. International Economic Review Hausman and Zvi Griliches. Econometrica 52 July : Reprinted in Griliches, Zvi ed. Berndt, Robert E. Hall, and Jerry A. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement Market Value of Innovation. Bosworth and E.
Webster eds. E revised June Slides from a presentation at Oxford University , May 18, May , revised June The Value and Performance of U. Corporations, with Robert E. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1 : American Economic Review Economics of Innovation and New Technology 1: The Public-Private Innovation Interface. The use of IP and open innovation in structuring knowledge relationships between firms.
Which firms participate in open source development? Preliminary draft paper. Slides from the presentation. Proprietary vs. Heitor eds. Universities as Research Partners , with Albert N. Link and John T. Scott, Review of Economics and Statistics , May Long version of this paper.
OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Mexico 2009
Scott, Journal of Technology Transfer DOI: Eurasian Economic Review 3 1 : Sydor ed. Hall and N. Rosenberg eds. Chiesa and F. Lotti and J. Mairesse, Industrial and Corporate Change 17 : Darity, pp.
Empirical studies of innovation in the knowledge driven economy: An introduction , with J. The Financing of Innovation , in Shane, S. Research Policy David and Andrew A. Research Policy 29 : A Review of the Evidence , with John van Reenen. In Audretsch, D. Thurik eds. In Smith, Bruce L.
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Barfield eds. In Bart van Ark and Karin Wagner eds. Journal of Econometrics In Tax Policy and the Economy 7: Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Microeconomics 2 : Furthermore, new sectoral and "mixed funds" have been declared, with the latter going to state and municipal governments.
Lastly, the law set up tax incentives for private industries upgrading technology. The ultimate measure of success in innovation policy is the development of internationally-competitive processes, products, and services. As follows from the NIS framework, this means that there must be a close coordination between the public sector, private sector, and academic institutions involved in the virtuous circle of relevant training, public funding of collective goods including information sharing, and marketplace efficiency discipline.
It is in this area of coordinated linkages and application of research and development that we find the sharpest contrasts and greatest weaknesses of the la nics, except when compared with??
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- Science, technology and innovation policy.
China except in the case of Chile?? The Korean Institute of Science and Technology kist has played a crucial role as the center for scientific research since its founding in the early s Chung, A government report notes, nonetheless, that there are weaknesses, namely a "weak reliance of industries on scientific research for innovation and weak responsiveness of universities and gris to market changes This makes it hard for the private and public sectors to collaborate. The government also provides direct funding competitions to industries for national priorities.
For academics, the government has paid attention to curricula in industrial fields, increased funding for basic scientific research, setting up a "National Research Fellow" program to support top graduate students, and promoting the continual upgrading of scientists' and engineers' skills. The networks help to coordinate national strategy towards development O Riain, , though there is also criticism for the high level of dependence on foreign multinationals Collins and Pontikakis, The networks also coordinate action for national competitiveness, such as wage restraint agreements to reduce costs during downturns; Kirby refers to the system generally as one of "social partnership" for national development Kirby, The Irish model is premised on heavy courting of foreign direct investment in designated sectors, which are lured by both favorable tax and regulatory structures as well as a high quality and well-educated workforce.
In Ireland, Science Foundation Ireland AFI is the main funding agency of research in both academics and industry and therefore the coordinating agency. SFI targets certain sectors, such as it and pharmaceuticals in funding local research teams Harris, O'Riaian points to a strong culture of evaluation which helps to create accountability among the public, private, and academic networks.
Forfas usually draws upon external and international experts to evaluate public policies, and negative evaluations "can result in closure, sale, or reorganization" of programmes O Riain, The Science and Technology Policy Council ensures overall national coordination among actors in the pursuit of the national vision Pelkonen, Lillrank states, "the relation between industry and academia has traditionally been smooth and intimate," with tekes playing the leading role.
Moreover, there is a Finnish Cluster program designed to coordinate the public sector, academics, and industry around specific research programs with budget allocations.
As is well-known, Nokia is at the heart of the Finnish innovation system. The links between Nokia and the public sector are complex and controversial. Some analysts claim that Nokia's success has little to do with direct State support Palmberg, However, most of the literature sees a direct link between Nokia's success and the Finnish innovation system Ali-Yrkko, Castells and Himanen point to the multiple and dense network ties between public policy institutions and Nokia. Nokia not only provides tax revenues, but also training and direct funding to universities.
Nokia develops technological expertise in direct contact with Finnish academics as well as its subcontractors. Thus, the Finnish cluster should be seen as a public-private network. It is further noteworthy that Finland is the only case studied here with an extensive welfare system, which apparently has not impeded it from attaining international competitiveness at the highest levels.
In , CAS operated 89 institutes with 20 supporting units, one university, and 2 graduate schools. By the end of , cas had invested in firms. However, the quality of those universities is quite uneven. Beijing and Tsinghua are the leaders in technology development. Chudnovsky notes that the interaction between university researchers and private industry is "very limited" and that almost all research personnel work in the public sector. Furthermore, "teaching has few links with research" and university researchers have a low level of collaboration.
In order to improve technology diffusion, the Argentine government spun off this function from conicet and established the National Agency for the Promotion of Science and Technology. This agency administers two funds for research: foncyt for academic or non-profit research and fontar for private industry upgrading. Chudnovsky, Writing in , Thorn notes that coordination problems continue to plague Argentina.
Individual agencies, including conicet, also suffer from a lack of clear "strategic direction" and coordination Thorn A World Bank Report notes that Brazil suffers from an inability to place its doctoral students in private industry, as most go into university positions, "in contrast with Korea. Holm-Nielsen, Numerous studies note the deeper problems of Brazilian higher education -a bifurcated system in which a handful of elite international-level research universities exist alongside mostly teaching universities with mixed standards.